Solution of Question posted on Facebook Group : IAS Preparation Tips

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Justification: Statement 1: It is introduced by any member who is not a Minister. A bill introduced by a Minister is called as a public bill.

Statement 2: Around 14 private member’s bills have been passed since independence.



Justification: Statement 2: The Indus valley people knew the use of copper, bronze, silver, gold but not iron. So, 2 is wrong.

Statement 1: The Ramayana mentions chariots covered with leather. The Rig Vedic charioteers used Varma (coats of mail) and sipra/sironastra (helmets).

Equipped with asi (swords), hanas (arrows) and ilhianus (bows), the Kshatriyas on the chariots went to combat.

Since statement 2 is wrong, given the options 1 must be correct.

Statement 3:  This is a disputed Statement.

The Rig Veda mentions horse-drawn chariots with spoked wheels.

But there is very little archaeological evidence of horses during the Harappan era and none at all earlier. The existence of the Harappan horse is a hotly disputed topic among archaeologists.


  • Some claim that horse was NOT
  • Among the numerous seals found in Harappa, there is none which represent a horse, while other animals like the bull, buffalo, and goat are represented.
  • Moreover, the cavalry (of horses) as an organized force can be traced only to the post-Vedic period, but not earlier.

Arguments against:

On the other hand, some scholars claim that the horse was widely domesticated and used in India in the area covered by the Indus-Sarasvati (or Harappan) Civilisation, but this evidence remains unsubstantiated.

FINAL VIEW: But, based on the above, to say that “there is no evidence of Indus Valley people having been aware of this animal” is WRONG because there is no conclusive evidence that tells us whether they knew about horses, or whether they were aware of horses. We have insufficient evidence to claim anything about the connection between horses and Indus valley.

Statement 3 is thus incorrect.



Why: Aspirants cover core schemes and programmes but often miss covering ancillary and peripheral aspects. This was picked from ‘between the lines’ on the official website of PMKVY. Such ancillary questions can be expected even in the coming years.

Justification: Option A: The ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ scheme — underway across construction sites in five states — to certify skills acquired by workers through traditional learning channels.

  • The project may be of particular relevance to a country where just 2 percent of the workforce is certified as skilled.
  • Most deemed to be outside the skilled category in India are those who have typically picked up a skill while on the job, without any formal degree to back this up.

Option D is incorrect since it talks about trainees who are not fully skilled to get recognition of any prior learning.

Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) in Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), but this isn’t applicable to trainees. So, D is incorrect.



Why: UPSC has the habit of picking up options from questions of its past year papers and asking new questions after improvising them. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve can be found occasionally mentioned in CSP and CAPF papers; hence the question.

Justification: Sathyamangalam forest range is a significant wildlife corridor in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve between the Western Ghats and the rest of the Eastern Ghats and a genetic link between the four other protected areas which it adjoins, including the Billigiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Sigur Plateau, Mudumalai National Park and Bandipur National Park.



Justification: Article 18 of the constitution justifies this. Under Right to equality, A18 abolishes titular privileges (except military or academic) granted to citizens of India.

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